Scope notes taken from the MeSH Descriptor Data

MeSH Term Definition
abdomen That portion of the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis.
abdominal pain Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region. 
abortion, spontaneous Expulsion of the products of conception before the completion of gestation without deliberate interference.
abscess Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of  infection.
acetic acid Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
airway obstruction Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
alcoholic beverages Drinkable liquids containing ethanol..
alcohols Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
aloe A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (emodin).
alum compounds Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
amenorrhea Absence of menstruation.
ammonia A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions.
amputation The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
analgesics Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness or without producing anesthesia.
anise A plant genus in the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) that is used in spices and is a source of anethole.
ankle The region of the lower limb between the foot and the leg.
anthelmintics Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal.
antimony A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
antimony potassium tartrate A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
anuria Inability to form or excrete urine.
anus No scope note.
anxiety Persistent feeling of dread, apprehension and impending disaster.
anxiety disorders Disorders in which anxiety (persistent feelings of apprehension, tension or uneasiness) is the predominant disturbance.
appetite Natural recurring desire for food
aristolochiaceae A plant family of the order Aristolochiales subclass Magnoliidae class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly tropical woody vines and a few temperate-zone species. The flowers are 3-parted; some species lack petals while others are large and foul smelling.
arm The superior part of the upper extremity between the shoulder and the elbow.
arm injuries General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
arrhythmia Any variation from the normal rhythm or rate of theheart.
arthralgia Pain in the joint.
asthenia Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.
asthma A form of bronchial disorder associated with airway obstruction, marked by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea, with wheezing due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchi.
astringents Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
back A region; in humans, the posterior trunk from the neck to the pelvis;
back pain Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the trunk, including the thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or adjacent regions.
balneology Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (hydrotherapy).
bandages Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
barley A plant genus of the family Poaceae. The seed grain, barley, is widely used as food.
baths The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
bed rest Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.
benzoin A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses.
beverages Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
bile An emulsifying agent produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum. Its composition includes bile acids and salts; cholesterol; and electrolytes.  It aids digestion of fats in the duodenum.
bile ducts No scope note.
bites and stings No scope note.
bladder No scope note.
bladder diseases No scope note.
blindness The inability to see or absence of perception of visual stimuli.  This condition may be the result of eye diseases, optic nerve diseases, optic chiasm diseases; or brain diseases affecting the visual pathways or occipital lobe.
blister Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
blood No scope note.
bloodletting Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries.  Its modern counterpart is phlebotomy.
body temperature No scope note.
body weight No scope note.
bone diseases, infectious Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
borates Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
borax Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
bread Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
breast In humans, either of the mammary glands, consisting of fibrous tissue connecting the lobes and fatty tissue in between the lobes.
breast diseases No scope note.
breast feeding The nursing of an infant at the mother’s breast.
burns Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals, electricity, or the like.
butter The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
calcium A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
calcium carbonate Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
calomel Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
camphor A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plant (primarily the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora). Natural camphor is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
candidiasis, oral Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus candida. (Dorland, 27th ed)
carbonates Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
caregivers Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients, etc.
castor oil Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
cathartics Agents that promote and/or ease defecation by accelerating the passage of feces through the large intestine, by influencing the consistency and amount of stool, and by facilitating the elimination of feces from the rectum. The terms laxative and cathartic reflect the typical intensity and latency of effect. A cathartic usually produces prompt fluid evacuation, while a laxative usually produces a soft formed stool over a protracted period; the same drug may act as a laxative or a cathartic depending on the dose administered or individual patient sensitivity. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p941)
catheterization Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from intubation in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
caustics Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
cereals Those grasses (poaceae) which yield edible seeds commonly recognized as food grains.
chamomile Common name for several daisy-like plants (matricaria; tripleurospermum; anthemis; chamaemelum) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.
cheek No scope note.
chenopodium ambrosioides A plant species of the genus Chenopodium known for toxicity to intestinal worms and other simple organisms.
chest pain Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
chills The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by shivering.
cholera An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is vibrio cholerae. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
cholera morbus A once popular name for an acute severe gastroenteritis of unknown etiology, with diarrhea, cramps, and vomiting, occurring in summer or autumn. It should be differentiated from classical cholera which is also characterized by severe gastrointestinal and metabolic manifestations but is caused by a powerful enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae. (Dorland, 27th ed)
cinchona A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic cinchona alkaloids from their bark; quinine; quinidine; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat malaria and cardiac arrhythmias.
cinnamomum zeylanicum The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% eugenol and many terpenes.
citrullus A plant genus of the family Cucurbitaceae known for the edible fruit.
citrus A plant genus of the family Rutaceae. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
cleft lip Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.
clitoris No scope note.
colchicum A genus of poisonous, liliaceous plants. The roots (corms) of Colchicum autumnale, the fall crocus or meadow saffron, yield colchicine, which is used as a biochemical tool and to treat gout. Other members of this genus yield saffron dye, flavoring agents, and aromatics.
cold An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
colic Paroxysms of pain. This condition usually occurs in the abdominal region but may occur in other body regions as well.
coma, post head injury Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the brain. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the the reticular formation of the brain stem. Contributing mechanisms include diffuse axonal injury and brain edema. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
common cold A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral, a mixed infection, or an allergic reaction. It is marked by acute coryza, slight rise in temperature, chilly sensations, and general indisposition. (Dorland, 27th ed)
communicable diseases No scope note.
consciousness disorders Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem reticular formation may result in this condition.
constipation Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
contusions Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
convolvulaceae The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.
convulsions A general term referring to sudden and often violent motor activity of cerebral or brainstem origin. Convulsions may also occur in the absence of an electrical cerebral discharge (e.g., in response to hypotension).
corn A plant species of the family Poaceae. It is a tall grass grown for its seed, corn, used as food and animal fodder.
cough A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
critical illness A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
croup A condition characterized by resonant barking cough, hoarseness and persistant stridor and caused by allergy, foreign body, infection, or neoplasm. It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
cycas A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division Cycadophyta of palm-like trees. It is a source of  cycasin, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
cysts Any closed cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material. (Dorland, 27th ed)
death Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
deciduas The hormone-responsive glandular layer of endometrium that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the placenta, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
deer The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
defecation The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the rectum.
deglutition No scope note.
delirium A disorder characterized by confusion; inattentiveness; disorientation; illusions; hallucinations; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
dental instruments Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
depression Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
depression, postpartum Depression in women occurring usually within four weeks after the delivery of a child. The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
dermatitis Any inflammation of the skin.
dermatologic agents Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
diarrhea Passage of excessively liquid or excessively frequent stools.
diet Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. This does not include diet therapy, a specific diet prescribed in the treatment of a disease.
diet therapy Used with disease headings for dietary and nutritional management of the disease. The concept does not include vitamin or mineral supplements, for which "drug therapy" may be used.
dietary sucrose Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
digestion The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
digestive system A group of organs stretching from the mouth to the anus, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste.
digestive system diseases No scope note.
disease A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
dizziness An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
drainage The systematic withdrawal of fluids and discharges from a wound, sore, or cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
dysentery Any of various disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially of the colon, and attended by pain in the abdomen, tenesmus, and frequent stools containing blood and mucus. Causes include chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasitic worms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
dyskinesias Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see movement disorders). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of basal ganglia diseases.
dyspepsia Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
dystocia Difficult childbirth or labor.
ear No scope note.
earache Pain in the ear.
eczema A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents  (Dorland, 27th ed).
edema Excessive amount of watery fluid accumulated in the intercellular spaces, most commonly present in subcutaneous tissue.
education, medical Use for general articles concerning medical education.
elbow No scope note.
emaciation Clinical manifestation of excessive leanness usually caused by disease or a lack of nutrition.
emetics Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
emollients Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
enema No scope note.
environment The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
epistaxis Bleeding from the nose.
equipment and supplies Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
erysipelas An acute infection of the skin caused by species of streptococcus. This disease most frequently affects infants, young children, and the elderly. Characteristics include pink-to-red lesions that spread rapidly and are warm to the touch. The commonest site of involvement is the face.
ether, ethyl A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
exanthema Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth ( erythema infectiosum), and sixth (exanthema subitum) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
exercise Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining physical fitness or health. Contrast with exertion which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
extremities No scope note.
eye No scope note.
eye diseases No scope note.
eye infections Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
face The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
fascia No scope note.
fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
fatty acids Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (fatty acids, unsaturated). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
feces No scope note.
female No scope note.
ferric compounds Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
ferula A plant genus of the family Apiaceae. It contains pungent oils and resins. It is used to flavor curries, as a carminative, and as cat and dog repellent. The occasionally used common name of 'giant fennel' should not be confused with true fennel (Foeniculum).
fever An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as aresult of a pathologic process.
fingers No scope note.
fishes A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
fistula Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
flank pain No scope note.
flatulence Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
flax A plant genus of the familyLinaceae that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of linseed oil.
flushing A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
food Anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat. (Dorland, 27th ed)
foot The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus ( ankle), metatarsus, phalanges, and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
fractures Breaks in bones or cartilage. (Stedman, 25th ed)
frostbite Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.
fruit The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
fumigation The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
furunculosis An infection where furuncles are present over a period of weeks to months. Species of staphylococcus are usually the causative agents.
gastric juice The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid ( gastric acid); pepsinogens; intrinsic factor; gastrin; mucus; and the bicarbonate ion( bicarbonates). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
gastrointestinal hemorrhage Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.
genital diseases, female No scope note.
genital diseases, male No scope note.
genitalia The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
genitalia, female The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the vulva, Bartholin’s glands, and clitoris. The internal organs include the vagina, uterus, ovary, and fallopian tubes.
genitalia, male The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (penis, scrotum, and urethra) and the internal organs (testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, and bulbourethral glands).
ginger Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (oils, volatile). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.
gingiva No scope note.
glossalgia Painful sensations in the tongue, including a sensation of burning.
gonorrhea Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract.
gout Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
guaiac Resin from wood of certain species of guaiacum. It is used as clinical reagent for occult blood.
gum Arabic Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
hand No scope note.
hand injuries General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
head No scope note.
headache Pain in the cranial region that may occur as an isolated and benign symptom or as a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions.
hearing The sensation of sound
hearing disorders Conditions that impair the transmission or perception of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
heart The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
heart diseases No scope note.
heartburn Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus.
heat The form of energy and the sensation of an increase in temperature. Its interest in medicine is largely with reference to its physiological effects, its therapeutic use, and its use in procedures in physics and physical chemistry.
helminthiasis Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
hematuria Presence of blood in the urine.
hemorrhage Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
hemorrhoids Varicosities of the hemorrhoidal venous plexuses.
hermaphroditism Originally, a state characterized by the presence of both male and female sex organs. In humans, true hermaphroditism is caused by anomalous differentiation of the gonads, with the presence of both ovarian and testicular tissue and of ambiguous morphologic criteria of sex.
hernia Protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
hip The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
hip joint No scope note.
hoarseness An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
homebound persons Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)
honey A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
horns No scope note.
house calls Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.
hyperhidrosis Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
hyperphagia Overeating.
hypesthesia Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
hysteria Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
immobilization The act of rendering whole or part of the body immobile, whether accidental or deliberate. This also refers to the state of immobility.
infant A child between 1 and 23 months of age.
inflammation A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
influenza An acute viral infection involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the pharynx, and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
injections No scope note.
interprofessional relations The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
intestinal diseases No scope note.
intestinal diseases, parasitic Infections of the intestines with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by intestinal nematodes (roundworms) and cestodes (tapeworms). (From Merck Manual, 15th ed; Dorland, 27th ed)
intestines The section of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the anus. It includes the large intestine and small intestine.
ipecac A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, Cephaelis ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine and other isoquinolines. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.
iron A metallic element found in certain minerals, in nearly all soils, and in mineral waters. It has the atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
iron compounds Inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
irritants Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
jaw Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the mandible and the maxilla.
joint diseases No scope note.
kidney No scope note.
knee No scope note.
knee injuries Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
labor The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (cervix uteri). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the fetus and placenta. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced.
lacerations Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.
lactation disorders Disturbances of milk secretion in either sex, not necessarily related to pregnancy.
lactose intolerance The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of lactase in the mucosa cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and the inability to break down lactose in milk for absorption. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (dyspepsia) to severe diarrhea. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
lard Heading mapped to Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
leeches Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
leg The inferior part of the lower extremity between the knee and the ankle.
libido The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
lilium A plant genus in the family Liliaceae generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
lime Heading mapped to Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
liniments Heat-generating liquids that are thinner than ointments and are applied to the skin with friction. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
linseed oil The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
liver No scope note.
liver diseases No scope note.
lung Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
magnesium oxide Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
magnesium sulfate A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
massage Group of systematic and scientific manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
materia medica Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
measles A highly contagious infectious disease caused by morbillivirus, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the reticuloendothelial system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
menorrhagia Excessive menstrual flow.
menstrual cycle The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding ( menstruation) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate.
menstruation The normal physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and mucosal tissues from the nonpregnant uterus.
menstruation disturbances Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
menstruation-inducing agents Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
mental disorders Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
mental processes Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
mercury A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to mercury poisoning. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
mercury compounds Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
milk The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
milk, human No scope note.
mouth The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
mouth diseases No scope note.
mouthwashes Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
movement disorders Syndromes which feature dyskinesiasas a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
mucus The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
mud therapy The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.
mumps An acute infectious disease caused by rubulavirus, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
muscles Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
musk Heading mapped to Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
mustard Any of several Brassica species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted and for greens or animal feed. It was formerly used as an emetic, counter-irritant, and carminative. There is no relationship to mustard compounds.
myristica fragrans A plant species in the Myristicaceae family. The seed is used as a spice and used for antimicrobial and psychoactive effects. Myristicin, safrole, and methyleugenol are key components.
nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
neck No scope note.
neck pain Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
neoplasms New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
nervous system diseases Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
nitric acid Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
nitrites Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
office visits Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
oils Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
oils, volatile Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more terpenes or of a mixture of an eleopten (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensibility. (From Dorland, 28th ed) –
ointments Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
oliguria Clinical manifestation of the urinary system consisting of a decrease in the amount of urine secreted.
olive oil Heading mapped to Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.
opium The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few – morphine; codeine; and papaverine - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
oral surgical procedures Procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
ovum A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the ovary at ovulation.
oxides Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli and generally received by specialized nerve endings.
palate The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (Palate, Hard) and the posterior soft palate (Palate, Soft).
pallor A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.
parasitic diseases Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
paregoric Heading mapped to Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few – morphine; codeine, and papaverine - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
paresis A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for paralysis (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis. "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as paraparesis.
paresthesia Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
penile diseases No scope note
penis The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
peppermint A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae that is the source of peppermint oil.
pharmaceutical preparations Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
pharmaceutical solutions Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
pharyngitis Inflammation of the throat.
pharynx A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the esophagus, and air to the larynx and lungs. It is located posterior to the nasal cavity; oral cavity; and larynx, and extends from the skull base to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the nasopharynx; oropharynx; and hypopharynx; and (laryngopharynx).
phimosis The inability to retract the foreskin over the glans penis due to tightness of the prepuce.
physical examination Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
physician-patient relations The interactions between physician and patient.
physicians, family Scope note not applicable
placenta A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (chorionic villi) derived from trophoblasts and a maternal portion (decidua) derived from the uterine endometrium. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (placental hormones).
placenta, retained A placenta which is either adherent or incarcerated by irregular uterine contractions, and which in consequence fails to be expelled after birth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
plant bark The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
plant extracts Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
plant oils Oils derived from plants or plant products.
plant roots The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
plants Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of the kingdom Plantae. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (meristems); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absense of nervous and sensory systems; and an alteration of haploid and diploid generations
plants, edible An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are fruit, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as vegetables.
plants, medicinal Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, or other pharmacologic activity when administered to higher animals.
pleurisy No scope note.
poisons Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
polygalaceae A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
potassium An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
potassium sulfate Heading mapped to Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
powders Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
pregnancy The condition of having a developing embryo or fetus in the body, after union of an ovum and spermatozoon. (Dorland, 27th ed)
pregnancy complications The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a disease. The disease may precede or follow conception and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or fetus.
prescriptions, drug Directions written for the preparation and adminstration of a drug.
pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
psychomotor agitation A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
pubic bone No scope note.
puerperal disorders Disorders or diseases associated with the six-to-eight-week period immediately following labor, obstetric and delivery.
puerperium Period from delivery of the placenta until return of the reproductive organs to their normal nonpregnant morphologic state. In humans, the puerperium generally lasts for six to eight weeks.
pulse The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an artery produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts.
quercus A plant genus of the family fagaceae that is a source of tannins. Do not confuse with Holly (ilex).
quinine An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
rash Entry term for Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth ( erythema infectiosum), and sixth (exanthema subitum) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
rectum The distal segment of the large intestine, between the sigmoid colon and the anus.
respiration disorders Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
respiratory tract diseases No scope note.
rest Freedom from activity.
rheumatic diseases Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
rhubarb Entry term for Rheum: A plant genus of the family Polygonaceae. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, emodin, and other anthraquinones. The roots were formerly used as purgatives.
ribs No scope note.
rubiaceae The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that providequinine; ipecac; and coffee. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
rye A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (claviceps), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with triticum is triticale, another grain.
saliva The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains musins, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
salivation The secretion of saliva which serves to moisten and soften food and keep the mouth moist. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
salts Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
scarlet fever Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.
sclera The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
scrotum No scope note.
seeds The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
seizures Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as epilepsy or "seizure disorder."
self administration Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
self medication The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
semen The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains spermatozoa and their nutrient plasma.
seminal vesicles A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
sensation disorders Disorders of the special senses (i.e., vision, hearing, taste, and smell) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the peripheral nervous system).
shoulder No scope note.
shoulder pain Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
signs and symptoms Clinical manifestations that can be either objective when observed by a physician, or subjective when perceived by the patient.
skin The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the dermis and the epidermis.
skin diseases No scope note.
skin ulcer No scope note.
skull fractures Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely bone diseases. Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., skull fracture, basilar), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., skull fracture, depressed).
sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
sleep disorders Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: dyssomnias (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), parasomnias (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
sleep initiation and maintenance disorders Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
sleep stages Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
smallpox An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
soaps Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
sodium An element that is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the extracellular body fluids. Its salts are the most widely used in medicine. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Physiologically the sodium ion plays a major role in blood pressure regulation, maintenance of fluid volume, and electrolyte balance.
sodium bicarbonate A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
sodium carbonate Heading mapped to Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
spasm An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle (muscle, skeletal) or smooth muscle (muscle, smooth).
speech disorders Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
spine The spinal or vertebral column.
spleen No scope note.
sputum Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains mucus, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
starch Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
sternum No scope note.
stimulants (historical) Agents or remedies that historically have produced stimulation or excited functional activity. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
stomach An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the esophagus and the beginning of the duodenum.
sulfates Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
sulfur An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight 32.066. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
sulfuric acids Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as sulfates and sulfuric acid esters respectively.
suppuration A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
surgery A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
surgical instruments Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
surgical procedures, operative Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
sweat The fluid excreted by the sweat glands. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
sweating No scope note.
syncope A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain. (i.e., brain ischemia). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
syringes Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
tablets Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
tartaric acid Heading mapped to tartrates: No scope note.
tartrates No scope note.
taste disorders Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with olfaction disorders. Additional potential etiologies include metabolic diseases; drug toxicity;; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., taste bud diseases; facial nerve diseases; glossopharyngeal nerve diseases; and brain stem diseases).
tea The infusion of leaves of camellia sinensis (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Oriental tea, which contains catechin (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and caffeine.
testis The male gonad containing two functional parts: the seminiferous tubules for the production and transport of male germ cells and the interstitial compartment containing leydig cells that produce androgens..
tetanus A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by clostridium tetani. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
therapeutics No scope note.
thigh No scope note.
thirst A drive stemming from a physiological need for water..
thorax The upper part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
throat A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the esophagus, and air to the larynx and lungs. It is located posterior to the nasal cavity; oral cavity; and larynx, and extends from the skull base to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the nasopharynx; oropharynx; and hypopharynx (laryngopharynx).
thrush Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus candida. (Dorland, 27th ed)
thumb No scope note.
ticks Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks and hardbacked ticks. Ticks are larger than their relatives, the mites. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many tick-borne diseases, including the transmission of Rocky Mountain spotted fever; tularemia; babesiosis; African swine fever; and relapsing fever. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
tongue No scope note.
tooth eruption No scope note.
tooth extraction The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
toothache Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
toxicodendron A genus (formerly part of Rhus genus) of shrubs, vines, or trees that yields a highly allergenic oleoresin which causes a severe contact dermatitis. The most toxic species are Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), T. diversilobum (poison oak), and T. radicans (poison ivy). T. vernicifera yields a useful varnish from which certain enzymes (laccases) are obtained.
travel Aspects of health and disease related to travel. It includes the physiologic and psychologic beneficial or adverse effects of travel in general or with regard to specific diseases. It includes also emporiatrics, the specialty devoted to the medical aspects of travel. It excludes study tours.
trephining The removal of a circular disk of the cranium. It is performed with a trephine, a small circular saw with a center pin mounted on a hollow metal shaft to which is attached a transverse handle. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
trismus Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including tetanus, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
trusses A surgical device designed for retaining a hernia in a reduced state within the abdominal cavity.
turpentine The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.
ulcer A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
umbilicus The pit in the center of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered in the fetus.
unconsciousness Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
urethra No scope note.
urinary calculi Calculi in any part of the urinary tract. According to their composition or pattern of chemical composition distribution, urinary calculi types may include alternating or combination, cystine, decubitus, encysted, fibrin, hemp seed, matrix, mulberry, oxalate, struvite, urostealith, and xanthic calculi.
urination No scope note.
urination disorders Disorders in the frequency of urination, the volume of urine produced or eliminated, or the ability to retain or void urine in normal fashion.
urine No scope note.
urtica dioica A plant species of the genus urtica, family Urticaceae. Roots have been used to treat prostatic hyperplasia. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.
uterine hemorrhage Hemorrhage from vessels in the uterus, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
vaccination Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
vagina The genital canal in the female, extending from the uterus to the vulva. (Stedman, 25th ed)
valerian A plant genus of the family Valerianaceae, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (heliotropium).
vegetables No scope note.
virus diseases A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
vision The sensation of sight.
vision disorders Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from eye diseases; optic nerve diseases; visual pathway diseases; occipital lobe diseases; ocular motility disorders; and other conditions. Visual disability refers to inability of the individual to perform specific visual tasks, such as reading, writing, orientation, or traveling unaided. (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132)
vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.
vulva No scope note.
walking An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
water Water. A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
weaning Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
whooping cough A respiratory infection caused by bordetella pertussis and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
wine Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
wounds and injuries Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
wrist The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the forearm.
xerostomia Decreased salivary flow.
yellow fever An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus.
zinc A metallic trace element that has the atomic symbol Zn, atomic number 30, and atomic weight 65.38. It is necessary in the diet, forms an essential part of many enzymes, and plays an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
zingiberaceae A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as ginger; turmeric (curcuma), and cardamom (elettaria).